Gacela dama (Sp), Damagazelle (G), Gazelle dama (F).
DESCRIPTION (male) Shoulder height 35-43 inches (89-109 cm). Weight 160-165 pounds (73-75 kg). Largest of the world's gazelles.
A large, slender gazelle with a long neck, long legs and short, thick horns. The neck and, to a varying extent, the shoulders and back are chestnut, contrasting with the white rump and underparts. There is a white throat patch and a chestnut stripe on the front of the forelegs, but no flank band or rump stripes. In adult males the head is pure white, but females have a chestnut forehead. The short tail is white with a black tip. In Africa, there is a gradual geographic variation in color from west (darkest) to east (lightest). In animals from the western Sahara, the chestnut color covers the entire back and extends down the legs. Sudan specimens are mostly white, with the chestnut limited to the neck and the top of the shoulder. The amount of chestnut is also affected by climate, habitat and the animal's age. The horns (both sexes) are heavily ringed and short for an animal this size. They bend well back from the base, then turn upward and a little forward at the tip. Females are similar to males, except they have smaller horns and a chestnut forehead.
DISTRIBUTION Private ranches in Texas.
REMARKS Once widespread along the western and southern edges of the Sahara Desert in northern Africa, from Morocco and Senegal to Sudan. Now much reduced because of uncontrolled hunting by locals, and competition from domestic livestock for the limited forage. The IUCN lists it as endangered in its native habitat. Many private herds exist in the United States and Europe. Eight subspecies are listed in Arica, but are not separated here.
March 19, 2014 – The 2005 regulation that authorizes certain otherwise prohibited activities under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) with U.S. captive-bred animals and sport-hunted trophies of the scimitar-horned oryx, addax and dama gazelle has been reinstated. Individuals who wish to take part in otherwise prohibited activities, including interstate or foreign commerce, import, export, culling or other forms of take, that meet the criteria for enhancement of these species under the ESA may do so without obtaining a permit.
HYBRIDIZATION The dama gazelle is either known or believed to crossbreed, or to be the result of hybridization, when in a game ranch environment.