Cervus timorensis russa
DESCRIPTION (male) Shoulder height 40-47 inches (102-120 cm). Weight 250-300 pounds (114-136 kg). Females are much smaller.
The largest race of rusa deer with the longest antlers. Males have a well-developed mane on neck and throat. The tail has a thick tuft. Summer coat is a dark, grizzled brown tinged with red. Throat, breast and underparts vary from dirty white to brownish gray, and there is a dark streak on the chest. Inner sides of buttocks and lower legs are dirty white. Chin, lips and inside of ears are whitish. Tail is yellow-brown on top and dirty white beneath, with a blackish tip. In winter, the coat turns grayish-brown with the lighter areas becoming a dirty yellowish-white, and often there is a brown band around the muzzle.
DISTRIBUTION Papua New Guinea: Wild Javan rusa are found from near Port Moresby inland through the Owen Stanley Range as far north as Wau. New Caledonia: There are wild Javan rusa throughout the island. Australia: Free-ranging Javan rusa occur in southeastern New South Wales, generally between Sydney and Eden, and also on Marble Island off the coast of Queensland, northeast of Brisbane. There also are enclosed Javan rusa on some private properties is southeastern Queensland and eastern New South Wales. New Zealand: Wild Javan rusa are found only on North Island, with the main populations located southwest of Rotorua in the Galatea and Waiohau valleys, in the foothills of the Ikawhenua Range, and near the head of the Whakatane River. There also are some small herds near Ruatoki North, Kutarere, Minginui, Ruatahuna, and in the Waimana Basin. There also are enclosed Javan rusa on some private properties in Texas.
TAXONOMIC NOTES As these deer were introduced from elsewhere and historical records are incomplete, we cannot be entirely certain of their racial purity. However, from the information available and the animals' physical characteristics, we think it is reasonable to treat them as Javan rusa (C. t. russa) in the Record Book.